Decline in coal production in India in 2019.
After two years of growth, global coal production remained stable in 2019, as slowing electricity consumption reduced coal demand.
In China, the largest coal producer (47% of the global output), production grew by 4% for the third year in a row, in line with the continuing supply-side structural reform. Coal production also increased slightly in Australia and accelerated in South Africa despite declining world prices.
In other large coal producing countries, production followed a downward trend: it contracted by 3.3% in India, where a prolonged monsoon season derailed the government’s target to boost domestic output and to cut its reliance on coal imports, in the USA (-6.7%, due to a falling demand from the power sector coupled with declining prices that contributed to a wave of bankruptcies), in Indonesia, and in Colombia. Coal production growth slowed down in Russia (+1% only) and remained stable in Turkey. In the EU, climate policies, the end of subsidies for coal production in 2018, high carbon prices and the increased competition from renewables and gas in the power sector contributed to a 15% fall in coal production, especially in Germany and Poland.
According to the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, global CO2 emissions from energy combustion increased by 0.9% to 38 GtCO2 in 2019, driven by China (+3.4%, accounting for 30% of global emissions) and India (+1.6%, 7% of global emissions). Meanwhile, Japan (3% of global emissions) reduced its energy-related CO2 emissions by 2.1%, the United States (13% of total emissions) by 2.6% and Russia (5% of total emissions) by 0.8%.
According to the European Commission, primary energy consumption declined by 0.7% in 2018 (-0.1% only for final energy consumption), which is insufficient to meet the 2020 targets. The highest annual reductions in primary energy consumption were posted in Belgium, Austria and Greece, whereas the largest increases were observed in Estonia, Latvia and Luxembourg. Between 2005 and 2018, primary energy consumption decreased in all Member States except Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia and Poland. Primary energy intensity fell in all Member States between 2005 and 2018; however, it grew in Denmark, Estonia and Luxemburg in recent years (between 2015 and 2018).
According to the Swiss government, final energy consumption in Switzerland slightly increased in 2019 (+0.3%) due to cooler temperatures, economic growth (+0.9%), demographic growth (+0.7%) and increasing fleet of motor vehicles (+0.8%). This rising trend was offset by continued energy efficiency and substitution effects.
According to preliminary figures from Citepa, France’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions declined by 0.9% in 2019, from 445 MtCO2eq in 2018 to 441 MtCO2eq in 2019. This is due to a decline in GHG emissions from the residential and tertiary sector (-2.7%, i.e. -2.2 MtCO2eq, with a 2.3% drop for households and a 3.2% decline for services), in the energy sector (-0.7%, including -1.5% for power generation), and in waste processing (-2.2%). In 2019, CO2 emissions dipped by 1%, from 331.5 Mt to 328.2 Mt (-3.3 Mt), while methane emissions contracted by 0.7% (-0.4 MtCO2eq).