Fall in Iran’s energy production in 2019.
The USA and China were the main contributors to the increase in global energy production in 2019, posting a significant growth in crude oil production and coal production, respectively.
2019 Key data for energy production are as follows:
- Crude oil: -0.7% driven by the fall in production in the Middle East (vs. +1.2%/year over 2000-2018)
- Gas: +4% propelled by the USA, Russia and Australia (vs. +2.5%/year over 2000-2018)
- Coal: 0%, with growth in China (+4%) offset by drops in India, the USA and the EU (compared with +3%/year over 2000-2018)
- Electricity: +1%, spurred by China, with declines in Europe, the USA and Japan (down from +3.1%/year over 2000-2018)
Energy production also grew in Russia and Australia (new LNG projects coming on stream), in Brazil (oil production rise), in South Africa (higher coal production) and in Turkey (surge in hydropower generation).
On the contrary, energy production continued to decline in Europe (especially coal production in Germany and Poland, and crude oil production in Norway and the Netherlands, where oil and gas resources tend to decrease). In the Middle East, US sanctions cut Iran’s energy production by nearly 15%, while Saudi Arabia reduced its crude oil production in line with the OPEC+ agreement.
In 2020, European Union-wide electricity consumption declined by more than 4%, as rising demand by households could not reverse falls in other sectors of the economy. The share of renewables in the EU power mix rose to 39%, surpassing fossil fuels (36%) for the first time. Indeed, coal- and lignite-fired power generation fell by 22% (-87 TWh), due to a strong competition from gas (very favourable price), higher carbon prices and new retirements of coal-fired power capacities. Consequently, the carbon footprint of the power sector in the EU dropped by 14% in 2020, with fuel switching being the main factor behind the decarbonisation trend. The European Union added 29 GW of solar and wind capacity in 2020, which is comparable to 2019 levels.
The global renewable capacity increased by 10.3% in 2020, when 261 GW of new projects were commissioned, raising the global renewable capacity to 2,799 GW, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). Almost two third of the new renewable capacities were installed in Asia (167.6 GW, corresponding to a 15% growth), followed by Europe (+34.3 GW, +6%), North America (+32.1 GW, +8%), South America (+9.4 GW, +4%), Oceania (+6.9 GW, +19%), Eurasia (+6.2 GW, +6%), the Middle east (+1.2 GW, +5%), Africa (+2.6 GW, +5%) and Central America and the Caribbean (+0.3 GW, +2%).
Turkey’ greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions decreased by 3.1% in 2019 to 506 MtCO2eq, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute. The energy sector is the largest contributor (72% in 2019) to emissions, followed by the agriculture sector (13%), the industrial processes and product use (11%) and waste (3%). GHG emissions have more than doubled since 1990 (220 MtCO2eq) and GHG emissions per capita have increased by more than 50% (from 4 tCO2eq to 6.1 tCO2eq in 2019).
Sweden’s solar photovoltaic capacity increased from nearly 700 MW in 2019 to over 1,090 MW in 2020, according to the national solar energy association Svensk Solenergi. The country added 392 MW of capacity in 2020, against 287 MW in 2019.