Fall in Iran’s energy production in 2019.
The USA and China were the main contributors to the increase in global energy production in 2019, posting a significant growth in crude oil production and coal production, respectively.
2019 Key data for energy production are as follows:
- Crude oil: -0.7% driven by the fall in production in the Middle East (vs. +1.2%/year over 2000-2018)
- Gas: +4% propelled by the USA, Russia and Australia (vs. +2.5%/year over 2000-2018)
- Coal: 0%, with growth in China (+4%) offset by drops in India, the USA and the EU (compared with +3%/year over 2000-2018)
- Electricity: +1%, spurred by China, with declines in Europe, the USA and Japan (down from +3.1%/year over 2000-2018)
Energy production also grew in Russia and Australia (new LNG projects coming on stream), in Brazil (oil production rise), in South Africa (higher coal production) and in Turkey (surge in hydropower generation).
On the contrary, energy production continued to decline in Europe (especially coal production in Germany and Poland, and crude oil production in Norway and the Netherlands, where oil and gas resources tend to decrease). In the Middle East, US sanctions cut Iran’s energy production by nearly 15%, while Saudi Arabia reduced its crude oil production in line with the OPEC+ agreement.
According to the General Administration of Customs, China’s crude oil imports increased by 7.3% in 2020 to 542 Mt (10.85 mb/d), boosted by low prices and the start-up of new refineries. The country increased the first batch of crude oil import quotas for non-state companies by 18% to 122.6 Mt in 2021, reflecting the increased capacity of private refiners. In addition, China’s gas imports, including LNG, rose by 5.3% to 101.7 Mt, as a harsh winter and a quick economic recovery from the coronavirus pandemic boosted demand.
According to the Russian power transmission system operator SO UPS, electricity consumption in the Unified Energy System (UES) of Russia decreased by 2.4% in 2020. Electricity consumption in Russia as a whole declined by 2.3% in 2020. Electricity generation in Russia in 2020 amounted to 1,064 TWh, which is 3% less than in 2019. Power plants in the UES produced 1,047 TWh (-3.1%), with thermal accounting for 53% of the total, nuclear for 21% and hydropower for 20%. Power plants for industrial enterprises accounted for 6% of total generation in the UES.
Kazakhstan produced 85.7 Mt of oil and condensate in 2020, of which 26.4 Mt (31%) were produced by Tengizchevroil, 15.1 Mt (18%) by North Caspian Operating Company (NCOC), and 12 Mt (14%) by Karachaganak Petroleum Operating. Oil exports reached 68.5 Mt. In addition, Kazakhstan’s natural gas output amounted to 55.2 bcm in 2020 (plus 3.2 Mt of LPG); domestic gas consumption reached 17.2 bcm and 10.7 bcm were exported. Oil product production reached 11.5 Mt, including 4.5 Mt of gasoline, 4.55 Mt of diesel and 2.1 Mt of fuel oil. Crude oil production is expected to remain stable in 2021, reaching 86 Mt, while oil exports are forecast to decline by 1.5% to 67.5 Mt.
Azerbaijan increased gas exports by 17% to 13.8 bcm in 2020, thanks to the Southern Gas Corridor. The country exported 10.5 mcm/d of gas to Italy, 2 mcm/d to Greece and 1 mcm/d to Bulgaria. The Shaz Deniz field’s output, which reached 18.4 bcm of gas and 29.2 mbl of of condensate in 2020, is expected to rise to 21.3 bcm of gas and 32.5 mbl of condensate in 2021. However, oil production at the Azeri–Chirag–Gunashli (ACG) complex should decline from 174.6 mbl in 2020 to 171.6 mbl in 2021.